Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Ms. Heidenheim 125
Creative Commons License

Dr. Justine Isserles, chercheure associée, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes-Saprat (Paris), 2019.

Handschriftentitel: Siddur
Entstehungsort: Sepharad, Castille (?)‎
Entstehungszeit: 14th century‎
Beschreibstoff: Parchment. Medium quality: holes (e.g. ff. 32, 115, 125), angular cut or shape of parchment in bottom or lateral margin (e.g. ff. 56, 113, 125). Hair and flesh sides distinguishable.
Umfang: I + 142 + I
Format: 149-150 x 108-111 mm
Seitennummerierung: Printed foliation in Arabic numerals from right to left in black ink in the top left corner of each folio.‎
Lagenstruktur: 19 quires of a variety of folios: ‎‎1 bifolio I (1r-2v); 1 quinion II (3r-10v)*; 1 quaternion III (11r-18v); 1 quinion IV (19r-26v)*2; 1 quinion V (27r-34v)*3; 1 quinion VI (35r-42v)*4; 1 quinion VII (43r-50v)*5 ; 1 binion VIII (51r-54v) ; 1 quaternion IX (55r-62v) ; 1 quaternion X (63r-70v) ; 1 quaternion XI (71r-78v) ; 1 quaternion XII (79r-86v) ; 1 quinion XIII (87r-94v)*6 ; 1 quaternion XIV (95r-102v) ; 1 quinion XV (103r-110v)*7 ; 1 quaternion XVI (111r-118v) ; 1 quinion XVII (119r-126v)*8 ; 1 quinion XVIII (127r-134v)*9 ; 1 senion XIX (135r-142v)*10‎
*: stubs between ff. 4v-5r and 7v-8r
‎*2: stubs between ff. 20v- 21r and 23v-24r
‎*3: stubs between ff. 28v-29r and 31v-32r
‎*4: stubs between ff. 37v-38r and 40v-41r
‎*5: stubs between ff. 45v-46r and 48v-49r
‎*6: stubs between ff. 88v-89r and 91v-92r
‎*7: stubs between ff. 104v-105r and 107v-108r
‎*8: stubs between ff. 121v-122r and 124v-125r
‎*9: stubs between ff. 129v-130r and 132v-133r
‎*10: stubs between ff. 136v-137r; 137v-138r and 140v-141r
‎ (J. Prijs did not take these stubs into consideration when counting the quires).
Presence of catchwords at the end of each quire.‎‎
Zustand: Well preserved manuscript with the exception of the following: humidity stains and parchment folds throughout the manuscript (e.g. ff. 136v-137r); the first 11 folios of the manuscript, whose margins and partial text have been mutilated (ff. 1r-11v); ripped off right hand corner of folio 62; the corner and partial bottom margin of folios 15 to 26 have disappeared due to insects; insect hole f. 35; tare f. 136.
‎ Restoration f. 101.‎
Seiteneinrichtung: Hardpoint ruling and inner and outer pricking throughout the manuscript. 1 + 1 columns of text. 13 traced lines for 13 written lines, except for folio 38r which has 1 + 2 columns and 14 traced lines for 13 written lines. End of lines are respected elongation and compression of letters as well as some word endings which overlap into the left lateral margin (e.g. f. 78v-79r) or complete words overlapping into the margin (e.g. ff. 63r, 73r, 131r).‎ Full page layout with inner and outer indentations around the initial words.‎
Schrift und Hände: One scribe copied this manuscript in a Sephardic vocalized script. The script is a square medium module for the main text and a large module for the initial words. A small module bookhand script is used for indications between prayers.
  • ff. 3v, 6r, 8r, 12r, 16r, 18r: initial words written over in red ink.‎
  • ff. 13v, 14r: initial words written over in yellow ink.‎
  • ff. 17v, 19v, 20r, 27v: initial words written over in yellow and red ink.‎
  • f. 34r: initial word panel containing scrolls and circles drawn in brown ink.‎
Spätere Ergänzungen: Minor corrections and additions in the margins e.g. ff. 22v, 54v, 63r, 101v, 128r.‎
ff. 60v, 61v: long notes in a bookhand script in a dark brown ink in the right lateral margin.‎
Marginal doodles: ff. 13r, 14r, 63r.‎
Einband: 19th century cardboard binding covered with a ‘clotted’ marbled paper wrapper (158 x 111 mm). Leather covered spine with 4 tooled bands. Between the 3rd and 4th band is a paper sticker with the following shelfmark printed on it: Ms Heid. 125.‎
This ‎14th century Sephardic Siddur for personal use is composed of the daily and sabbath prayers, as well as a text on the interpretation of dreams (Harris, 1994; Trachtenberg, 1977). Moreover, there are additions to be inserted in the prayers for the new month, the festivals of Ḥanukkah, Purim and Pessaḥ, the latter of which has been followed by the Haggadah, read at the Seder itself. Just preceding the beginning of the Haggadah are some instructions on the structure of the Seder with some blessings in Hebrew and some instructions in Judeo-Spanish on folios 129r-129v.‎

  • Beginning and end lacunary, as well as missing portions of text within the manuscript itself, witnessed by the presence of several stubs (see under composition of quires).‎
    • (ff. 1r-26v) : Shaḥarit (daily morning prayer, beginning in the middle of the Psuqei de-Zimra and cutting of during the Shema)‎
    • (ff. 27r-34r) : Pitaron ḥalomot (text on interpretation of dreams)‎
    • (ff. 34r-54v) : continuation of Shaḥarit‎ (daily morning prayer, starting with the Taḥanun)
    • (ff. 55r-62v) : Minḥah (daily afternoon prayer)‎
    • (ff. 62v-67v) : Arvit shel Shabbat (evening prayer on the Sabbath eve)‎
    • (ff. 67v-68r) : Qiddush (blessing over the wine on the Sabbath eve)
    • (ff. 68v-69v) : Shaḥarit shel Shabbat (Sabbath morning prayer)‎
    • (ff. 69v-92r) : Mussaf shel Shabbat (Sabbath Mussaf prayer)‎
    • (ff. 92r-93r) : Minḥah le-Shabbat (Sabbath afternoon prayer)‎
    • (ff. 93v-99v) : Tefilat Arvit (evening prayer after the Sabbath) (including Havdalah on ff. 94r-95r)
    • (ff. 100r-101r) : Shabbat Qodem Rosh Ḥodesh (additions for the Sabbath prayer before a new month)‎
    • (ff. 101r-106v) : Tefilat Rosh Ḥodesh (additions for a weekly prayer when it falls at the beginning of a new month)‎
    • (f. 106v) : Shabbat Rosh Ḥodesh (additions for a Sabbath prayer when it falls at the beginning of a new month)‎
    • (ff. 106v-109v) : Tefilat Mussaf (additions for a Mussaf prayer on the Sabbath when it falls at the beginning of a new month)‎
    • (ff. 109v-111r) : Ḥanukkah (additions for a prayer (Amidah) when it falls on the feast of Ḥanukkah)‎
    • (ff. 111r-123v) : Shabbat Qodem Purim (prayers for the Sabbath before the feast of Purim, named Parshat Zakhor)‎
    • (ff. 124r-124v) : Purim (additions for a prayer (Amidah) when it falls on Purim)‎
    • (ff. 124v-127r) : Pessaḥ (additions for a prayer (Amidah) when it falls on Pessaḥ)‎
    • (ff. 127v-128r) : Qiddush for the beginning of the feast of Pessaḥ when it falls on a Sabbath‎
    • (ff. 128v-129v) : Explanations on the structure of the Pessaḥ Seder, including abbreviated Hebrew blessings, and explanations in Judeo-Spanish on ff. 129r-129v
      Here below is the transliteration, translation and transcription of these Judeo-Spanish explanations (the blessings in Hebrew have not been translated):‎
      • (f. 129r) , lines 9-13:
        Line 9: E beberan cada uno su vaso (and they will drink each one his glass)‎
        אי ביברן קדה אונוש ובשו
        Line 10: E lavarán los manos e dirán (and they will wash the hands and they will say)‎
        אי לברן לש מנוש אידירן
        Line 11: Barukh Atah Hashem Eloqeinu Melekh ha-olam al netilat
        ב'א' א'מ'ה' א'ק'ב'ו' על נטילת
        Line 12: yadaim e tomaran del apio (yadaim and they will take the celery)‎
        ידים אי טומרן דיל אפיו
        Line 13: I entiniran en el vinagri (and they put [lit: ‘poner en tina’: to put/ immerse in a vat/tub/ bowl] it in the vinegar)‎
        אי יאנטינירן איניל ונגרי
      • (f. 129v) , lines 1-9:‎
        Line 1: E dirán Barukh Atah Hashem Eloqeinu Melekh ha-Olam boreh (and they will say barukh…)‎
        אידירן ב'א' א'מ'ה' בורא
        Line 2: Peri ha-adamah e tomará (Peri ha-adamah and he will take)‎
        פרי האדמה איטומרה
        Line 3: Tres matsot e partirá (three matsot and he will break)‎
        טריש מצות אי פרטירה
        Line 4: Una de ellas de sin sal (one of them [of] without salt)‎
        אונה דיליאש די שין של
        Line 5: E porná la media entre (and he will put the middle one between)‎
        איפורנא למידיא אינטרי
        Line 6: los dos sanas e la otra (the two ‘healthy/fresh’ and the other)‎
        לאש דוש שנש אי לאוטרה
        Line 7: media son las tobajas e (middle are the tablecloths and)‎
        מידיא שון לש טובגש אי
        Line 8: Engirán los bassos de vino (they will ingest the glasses of wine)‎
        אינגירן לוש בשוש דיוינו
        Line 9: E dirán ‎הא לחמא עניא ‏‎…. (and say Ha Laḥma Ania…)‎
        אידירן הא לחמא עניא .....‏
        It appears that the Judeo-Spanish of this text is Old Castilian and that some words are unusual for the period, such as porná (futur of the verb "pornar", meaning ‘to put’), which is an unusual form of the verb "poner" in the 14th and 15th centuries, but usual in the 13th century or vinagri (instead of "vinagre", maybe a mistake of the copyist) (Many thanks to Dr. Esperança Valls-Pujols of the Institut Privat d’Estudis Món Juïc in Barcelona and for her help in correcting this transliteration and translation of this text, as well as her comments in identifying it as Castilian).‎
    • (ff. 129v-142v) : Pessaḥ Haggadah (lacunary) ending with the paragraph on Rabban Gamliel.
Provenienz der Handschrift: This manuscript was part of the collection of Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898), a German Jewish scholar from Worms, who converted to Anglicanism. After several years studying in London, Heidenheim came to Zurich in 1864 and became an Anglican chaplain, where stayed until his death in 1898.
However, previous to the acquisition of this manuscript by M. Heidenheim, nothing is known of its tribulations after its compilation by a Sephardic scribe during the 14th century.
Erwerb der Handschrift: In 1899, the collection of 211 Hebrew manuscripts (189 paper and 22 parchment manuscripts) and 2587 printed books entered the Zentralbibliothek in Zurich. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including biblical, exegetical, halakhic, liturgical, grammatical, lexicographical, kabbalistical, astronomical and apologetical literature, and conveys above all, Moritz Heidenheim's scholarly and scientific interests,as a well-known 19th century bibliophile (O. Franz-Klauser, 2006, pp.116, 241).
Manuscript catalogues:‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebraïschen Handschriften der Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Im Auftrag der Verwaltung der Zentralbibliothek beschrieben von Joseph Prijs (7 vols.), vol. 3, Nr. 97, pp. 179-180‎
  • A. Schechter, Die hebraïschen Manuscripte der Zentralbibliothek zu Zürich (Abt. Heidenheim) von Abraham Schechter. Abgeschlossen am 15. September 1921, (Hebrew), p. 148.‎
Printed catalogues and secondary literature:‎
  • O. Franz-Klauser, Ein Leben zwischen Judentum und Christentum. Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898) (Zurich: Chronos Verlag, 2008), esp. pp. 241-242.‎
  • M. Harris, Studies in Jewish Dream Interpretation (Northvale (NJ): Aronson cop., 1994), esp. pp. 1-14.‎
  • M. Nulman, The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer: Ashkenazic and Sephardic Rites (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1993).‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebräischen Handschriften in der Schweiz: Katalog der hebräischen Handschriften in den Schweizer öffentlichen Bibliotheken … redigiert auf Grund der Beschreibungen von Joseph Prijs (Basel, Benei Beraq: Sefer Verlag, 2018), pp. 129-130 (Nr. 151).‎
  • J. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion (New York: Atheneum, 19772), pp. 229-246.‎