The following descriptions are available for this manuscript

  • Scherrer Gustav, Verzeichniss der Handschriften der Stiftsbibliothek von St. Gallen, Halle 1875, S. 299-300.
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  • Bergmann Rolf / Stricker Stephanie, Katalog der althochdeutschen und altsächsischen Glossenhandschriften, Bd. II, Berlin 2005, S. 565-566.
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  • Beschreibung von Karin Margareta Fredborg für e-codices, 2011
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  • Bruckner Albert, Scriptoria Medii Aevi Helvetica 3, Schreibschulen der Diözese Konstanz, St. Gallen II, Genf 1938, S. 120.
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St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 868
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Beschreibung von Karin Margareta Fredborg für e-codices, 2011

Place of origin: St. Gallen
Date of origin: early twelfth-century
Former shelfmark: D.n. 419
Foliation: The pagination is late, perhaps made by the local librarian Pio Kolb in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pio Kolb’s catalogue of the St. Gallen manuscripts is on the of the Mss. St. Gallen, Ms 1400-1401.
Additions: Vernacular glosses, both French and German, many of which have been edited by Klaus Siewert, Die althochdeutsche Horazglossierung (see Bibliography).
Binding: Modern.
Miscellaneous early twelfth-century manuscript from St. Gallen. It has a complicated arrangement of parts, of which the sections D, E, and F form a nucleus of their own. D, E, and F hold no less than three commentaries to the Ars poetica, the first for the intermediate level of students, the second for the advanced students and the third, being considerably shorter and more elementary, for the rudes. What precedes these sections, are a Vita Horatii, something on metrics, and commentaries on the lyrics of Horace, which in the medieval commentary tradition are taken to be works predating the Ars poetica, the Satires and the Epistles.

Transcriptions have been made of the three commentaries to the Ars poetica and the complete commentary to the Epistles. These will eventually be available in a digitized form. Until a convenient webside is established, scholars interested are welcome to contact Karin Margareta Fredborg, cand. mag., Bredesvinget 23, Dk-2830 Virum, Denmark. e-mail:
Origin of the manuscript: Our manuscript 868 was by Kolb called D.n.419 and his note Commentarius doctissimus in Poetriam seu Artem Poeticam Horati (+ two words blotted out) et Epistolas. Idem fragmentum cuiusdam commentarii in aliquas Satyras auctoris anonymi, can be read on the colophon of Ms 868. In his catalogue (Ms 1401 p. 494), he only mentions the commentary on the Ars poetica and the Epistles. To Kolb’s colophon notice was later supplemented a notice, Census duorum gamborum vulgo Sauschsanpa anno 1252 firmatur pag. 5, probably by the librarian Ildefors von Arx (1755-1833), around 1805 Stiftsarchivar, around 1823 Stiftsbibliothekar. (I am here grateful to the librarians of St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek, who kindly directed my attention to this during my visit in November 2010) Bergmann and Stricker suggest that the codex itself was written in the Benedictine monastery at St. Gallen. The manusript is not discussed in Das Kloster St. Gallen im Mittelalter, ed. Peter Ochsenbein (Darmstadt, 1999).
  • Rolf Bergmann & Stephanie Stricker, Katalog der althochdeutschen und altsächsischen Glossenhandschriften II (Berlin, 2005), pp. 565-66.
  • Bernhard Bischoff, ”Persius: Anonymus Leodiensis (c. 1077-80),” in Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum: Mediaeval and Renaissance Latin Translations and Commentaries 3, ed. F. Edward Cranz & Paul Oskar Kristeller (Washington, D. C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1976), pp. 239-43.
  • Bernhard Bischoff, ”Living with the Satirists,” Mittelalterliche Studien III (1981), pp. 260-270.
  • Albert Bruckner, Scriptoria Medii Aevi Helvetica 3. Screibschulen des Diözese Konstanz. St. Gallen II (Genf, 1938) p. 120.
  • Karin Margareta Fredborg, ”Horatslæsning i middelalderen,”
  • Karsten Friis-Jensen, ”The Medieval Horace and his Lyrics,” in Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique 39 Horace, ed. Olivier Reverdin & Bernard Grange (Geneva, 1993) p. 281.
  • Karsten Friis-Jensen, ”Medieval Commentaries in Horace,” in Medieval and Renaissance Scholarship. Proceedings of the Second European Science Foundation Workshop on the Classical Tradition in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Nicholas Mann & Birger Munk Olsen (Leiden: Brill, 1997), pp. 51-73.
  • Karsten Friis-Jensen, ”Sankt Gallen - accessus’en til Horats’ Oder. Udgave og note om forfatterspørgsmålet,” (With a translation into English of the accessus)
  • Birger Munk Olsen, l’Etude des auteurs classiques aux XIe et XIIe siècles, Tome I: Catalogue des manuscrits classiques latins copiés du XIe et XIIe siècles: Apicius-Juvenal (Paris, CNRS, 1982), pp. 519-20.
  • Birger Munk Olsen, l’Etude des auteurs classiques aux XIe et XIIe siècles, Tome II: Catalogue des manuscrits classsiques latins copiés du XIe et XIIe siècles: Livius – Vitruvius. Florilèges, essais de plume (ibid., 1985).
  • Birger Munk Olsen, l’Etude des auteurs classiques aux XIe et XIIe siècles, Tome III.1, Les classiques dans les bibliothèques médiévales (ibid., 1987) pp. 226-230.
  • Birger Munk Olsen, l’Etude des auteurs classiques aux XIe et XIIe siècles, Tome III.2, Addenda et Corrigenda (ibid., 1989).
  • Birger Munk Olsen, l’Etude des auteurs classiques aux XIe et XIIe siècles, Tome IV.1, La réception de la littérature classique, travaux philologiques (ibid., 2009).
    (this last volume is henceforth = BMO (2009). In vol. I (1982) p. 519 the Horace part is divided into five section thus: pp. 3-12, pp. 13-28, pp. 29-52, pp. 53-141, pp. 142-193; in BMO (2009), p. 27 the middle sections are slightly differently divided. Due to the changes in format, the complexity and the abrupt stops leaving two fragmentary commentaries on the Epistles pp. 73-74 and the Satires pp. 140-41, the Horace material is here divided into six sections, A-F.)
  • Gustav Scherrer, Verzeichniss der Handschriften des Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen (Halle, 1875) pp. 299-300.
  • Klaus Siewert, Die althochdeutsche Horazglossierung (Göttingen: Vanderhoch & Ruprecht, 1986), pp. 170-216.
Codicological unit: Section A pp. 1-12
Format: 14.8 cm x 10.5 cm
Collation: pp. 1-4 sewn together, pp. 1-2 paper// pp. 3-12 ternion.
Condition: Top of pp. 9-10 badly torn.
Page layout: Long lines, except pp. 7-10 which are in two columns. 34-35 lines per page, pencil ruling pp. 6-7.
Writing and hands: Two hands
  • pp. 3-5 All of p. 3 and margins of pp. 4 and 5: Financial deal signed by cives S. Galli
  • p. 4 1-9 Ps.- Acro: Vita Horatii II.
  • pp. 4 107a 29 Ps.-Acro: Expositio metrica.
  • p. 7a 307b 30 metrical notes: Adonium ex dactilo
  • pp. 7b-8a Suetonius: Vita Horatii.
  • pp. 8b-10b Comm. carm. [BMO #151] incipit: >Bachum in remotis< Hic nobis proponit suam apotheosim …–… nomen Cesaris magnifico. Extracts on C. 2.19; C. 2.20; C. 3.20; C. 3.25.
  • pp. 11-12 blank.
Codicological unit: Section B pp. 13-28
Format: 14.8 cm x 10.5 cm
Collation: Quaternion
Page layout: 43 lines per page, long lines.
Writing and hands: New hand.
  • pp. 13-28 Beginning of a Comm. carm. [BMO # 150] covering C. 1.1.1.-2.10 . Incipit: (See BMO (2009) p. 75.) Cum liber iste Horacii diuersis nominibus nuncupetur, uidetur conuenienset a propria uirtute sic dicens: O Mecenas edite [1.1.1] .i. extra date et prelate … – explicit, C. 2.10.23… p. 28 habentes prosperum uentum tantum uelo // (Old German ’werra’ p. 15 8 and p. 26 12; p. 22 10 ’garzones’. Siewert’s list of German and French glosses does not cover all vernacular glosses, and only starts at St. Gallen Stiftsb. 868, p. 41.)
Codicological unit: Section C pp. 29-52
Format: 9.8 cm x 7.5 cm
Collation: pp. 29-40 ternion, pp. 41-52 ternion.
Page layout: pp. 29-38, 32-33 lines per page. Clearly page 45 was originally part of a differently bound manuscript because of the cut off right hand side of text.
Writing and hands: New hand.
  • pp. 29-38 Comm. Carm. 4.2.1-4.15.32, acephalous. Incipit: … // de hoc metro humiles personas materiam assumeret …–… explicit per illos te habemus cum essent tui antecessores [Explicit clossa odarum, incipit super epodon]. Doctrinally and stilistically, it could be part of the same or a contemporary work with the commentary on the Odes of pp. 13-28.
  • pp. 38-44 & pp. 46-49, ca. 33 lines per page. Two (?) Comm. Epod. (See BMO (2009), p. 77.), in two different hands, but in the same format, the first covering Epodes 1.1-13.10, p. 38 incipit: [BMO # 174], >Ibis Liburnis< In hoc libro iterum uicia materia sunt Horatii de quibus ut lex inuectionum est non blandiendo Horatius sic loquens ad Mecenatem: O Mecenas, tu ibis Liburnis. Liburnae erant paruae naues …–… p. 44, Epod. 13.10 Achamenia est terra ubi habundat. Et iuvat leva <re >//
    • (p. 45 = stray notes, in a different hand, for A.P. with righthand portion cut off)
    • The second Comm. Epod starts with the same lemma continued p. 46 incipit: Epod.13.10 Pectora a diris sollicitudinibus, Cillenea id est mercuriali …–… explicit: p. 49 Epod.17.75 et tunc terra cedet id est omnes habitantes terram mee insolentiae.
  • p. 50 Comm. carmen saeculare [BMO #163] (See BMO (2009), p. 74.), fragment only. Half page blank. incipit: >Phebe silvarumque< Istud uocatur seculare carmen et est liber per se …–… explicit: uos duo lucidum decus celi. 2 Quod uel quo.
  • pp. 51-52 blank
Codicological unit: Section D pp. 53-74
Format: 14.8 cm x 10.5 cm
Collation: D is a senion (quire consisting of originally 12 folios), where the first folio has been cut away. How much there is missing between sections D and E is not known.
Page layout: Long lines as the rest of the Horace sections in this manuscript, sections D-F, with the same format and ca. 43 lines per page.
  • p. 53 Accessus Sat. [BMO #182], new hand, 22 lines, bottom end of page blank. (See BMO (2009), p. 78.) Incipit: In huius libri principio .VII. sunt inquirenda: quis fuerit auctor, quis titulus, que materia, que intentio, que utilitas, quis modus tractandi, cui parti philosophie …–… explicit: Ethice supponitur .i. morali scientie quia de moribus tractat.
  • pp. (54) 55-73 Comm. ars [BMO #233] = Sangallensis A.P.1 covering A.P.8-476, (mutilated in the very start).
    • (p. 54) turns out to be only an added second copy, in a different hand from the rest, of what is also the introduction of Sangallensis A.P.2, p. 75, namely Accessus & commentary to A.P.1-6: In isto libro …–… Uni forme. Temesis est, diuisio integre dictionis.
  • p. 55 (real incipit of Sangallensis A.P.1) >8 Pictoribus< . Videns Horacius quoddam prouerbium …–… explicit: p. 73, at vs. 476 hirudo id est sanguisuga > explicit de poetria, Incipit de epistolis < On pp. 55-56 midpage starts the main hand of most of the manuscript (pp. 55-56; pp. 71-193) only p. 56 second half - p. 70 is in a different contemporary hand, but the first hand takes over again after p. 70 to the end of the Horace commentaries, and has also done repairs to the top of pp. 13 and 14.
  • pp. 73-74 fragment of a Comm. epist. [BMO #209] in Ep. 1.1.1-.20, only the very beginning of a literal commentary, but more than just an Accessus (See BMO (2009), p. 76.) It is written in the same hand as the preceding work, with the incipit: >Prima dicte mihi< Hic liber uocatur epistolae. Stola autem Grece, Latine interpretaturpostposuit et sic incipit: O Mecenas dicte mihi id est a me prima Camena …–… explicit p. 74 Ut nox. Dico quod tu//.
Codicological unit: Section E pp. 75-141
Collation: pp. 75-90 quaternion// pp. 91-106 quaternion// pp. 107-121 quaternion since, due to wrong pagination, we have p. 120 + 120bis // pp. 122-137 quaternion// pp. 138-141 bifolium/. How much there is missing between section E and F is not known.
Page layout: Same number of lines, same format.
Writing and hands: Same hand.
  • pp. 75-88 Comm. ars [BMO #222] = Sangallensis A.P.2, complete (See BMO (2009), p. 73.), incipit: In isto libro .IIII. \uel VI/.requiruntur: intencio, causa intencionis, modus, qualitasTitulus est ”Q. Horacii Flacci carminum liber .IIII. explicit. Incipit .V. de arte poetica”. Humano capiti. Species uocat illos .III. stilos …–… hirudo egela, (Cf. Scholia Vindobonensia, ed. Joseph Zechmeister (Wien, 1877), p. 33: missura cutem nisi plena cruoris. hirudo, id est, egila. & Siewert, Althochdeutsche, p. 176-77.) non [di] missura. Non dimittit eum prius quam plenus est laboris et fastidii illius (A.P.476).
  • pp. 88-133 Comm. epist [BMO #205] = Sangallensis epist.2, complete (See BMO (2009), p. 76.). Incipit: >Prima dicte< Finitis .IIII. libris carminum, poetria, epodon, sermonibus, Horatiussic incipit O Mecenas dicte id est laudate …–… explicit: p. 133 intromittendo te de officio, deinceps tibi non apto. >Explicit clossa epistolarum< (Ep.2.2.216).
  • pp. 133-140 Comm. ars [BMO #247] = Sangallensis A.P.3, complete (See BMO (2009), p. 74.). Incipit: Tria quae in principio huius libri inquiruntur, uidelicet materiam, intencionem, qualitatemdebet enim uterque res ut creatae sunt representare, ille uerbis, iste imaginibus. Humano. Conuenit et uiro et feminae sed ipse postea …–… explicit p. 140 si tota die uile dictamen cogitur audire (A.P.475). >Explicit de Poetria, Incipit de Ser.<
  • pp. 140-141 fragment of Comm. sat. (See BMO (2009), p. 78) = Sangallensis Sat.1, 1.1.1-20, BMO vol. 3.2 [Cc.23/ #188*], incipit: >Qui fit Mecenas< Intencio Horatii est in hoc libro ut semper satiricorum reprehendere uitia Romanorum, et differt hic liber a libro Epistolarum in hoc quod hic loquitur ad presentes, unde etiam nomen est /p. 141 / ei sermones. Sermo enim dicitur collocutio aliquorum quod seritur inter duos. 1.1.1. In hac autem prima …–… explicit p. 141 polis ciuitas, unde 1.2.1 pharmocopole dicuntur uenditrices unguenti in ciuitate//
Codicological unit: Section F pp. 142-193
Format: same format 14.8 cm x 10.5 cm
Collation: pp. 142-157 quaternion// pp. 158-173 quaternion// pp. 174-189 quaternion// pp. 190-193 bifolium.
Page layout: Same number of lines per page.
Writing and hands: Same hand.
  • pp. 142-193 Comm. sat. = Sangallensis sat.2, BMO vol. 3.2 [# 195**], complete (See. BMO (2009), p. 78). Incipit: >Qui fit< Hoc opus ut titulus indicat uocaturuolumus intelligere. O Mecenas qui id est quo modo sit ut nemo uiuat contentus …–… explicit p. 193 nociuior est ueneno serpentum Affricae qui sunt nociuiores aliis propter calorem (Sat.2.8.95) >Expliciunt colosse [sic] sermonum Horacii Quinctii.<
Codicological unit: Section G pp. 194-201
Format: 14.9 cm x 12.3 cm
Foliation: Between pp. 198 and 199 two pages not paginated.
Collation: Quaternion from which the last two folios have been cut away.
Page layout: ca. 100 lines per page.
Writing and hands: New scribe (s.XI)
  • Persius commentary. [BMO Cc.16 / # //72], s.xi, mutilated in the beginning, covers Sat. 1.62-4.10. Incipit:// prehendit de pari illos qui cum sint peccatores …–… explicit: librantis id est considerantis ut libra cf. Bernhard Bishoff, Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum 3 (Washington: Cath.Univ. of Am. Pr., 1976), pp. 239-243.
  • p. 202 theological note,
  • p. 203 alphabet
  • pp. 204-5 paper.