Zurich, Zentralbibliothek, Ms. Heid. 145
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Dr. Justine Isserles, chercheure associée, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes-Saprat (Paris), 2019.

Titolo del codice: Liturgical-halakhic compendium
Luogo di origine: Ashkenaz
Dimensioni: III + 189 + III (according to the foliotation).‎‎
Numerazione delle pagine: Foliotation in grey pencil in Arabic numerals from 0 to 189, situated in the top left-hand corner of every folio, going from right to left. Folio 18 also bears another number 18 in grey pencil in the middle of the bottom margin and folio 1 bears the number 335 in the middle of the bottom margin. An older, possibly medieval brown ink foliotation in Hebrew numbers, is also found in the top left-hand corner of each folio, going from right to left. It begins on folio 1 with the number ‎א‎ (1) and ends on folio 106 with the number ‎קך‎ (120). The number ‎קך‎ (120) is also found on folio 105, which means that on folio 106, the correct Hebrew number should be ‎קכא‎ (121).‎
Condizione: Heavily damaged manuscript, mostly due to water and humidity. Numerous folios are no longer whole, their inner and outer (partial and total) lateral margins having disappeared (ff. 0-76). The beginning of the manuscript has been the most damaged (ff. 0-30), sometimes only small sections of the folios remain, whereas the middle of the manuscript is more preserved with a fully legible main text, even though its inner lateral margins and the external corner at the bottom of each folio are no longer preserved (ff. 30-75). The end of the manuscript is the best preserved (ff. 76-189), although it contains countless humidity stains (e.g. ff. 82v-83r). The writing has been partially erased on many folios (e.g. ff. 16v; 59r; 175v-176r), but has sometimes just faded (e.g. ff. 26r-38r). Folio 174v has been partially mutilated, with its last line of text and bottom margin cut out.‎
Restorations: The manuscript was restored in the 19th century when the old binding was replaced by the brown paper cardboard one (preserved in a box). A second restoration, more important than the first one, took place between August and October 2018 at the Zentralbibliothek, Zurich and can be viewed there on request.‎
Tipo di scrittura e mani: Three scribes have written this compendium in an Ashkenazi small module bookhand script for the main text (except for ff. 1v, 11r/v where there is a medium module gothic ‘brisé’ bookhand script). In textual unit 2, initial letters and words are of small module square script, whereas in textual unit 1, the initial letters and words are written in a medium and large module square script.‎ All 3 scribes have used dark brown ink, which has sometimes faded (e.g. ff. 26r-38r).
Aggiunte: Many later additions (described under content) on blank folios of the manuscript (ff. 22r/v; 47r-48v; 53r/v; 59r; 75r/v, 171r/v) as well as in the margins of practically the whole manuscript (e.g. ff. 25v; 44v-45r; 59v; 60v; 61r; 62v; 64r, 66r; 65r; 76r-145r; 148v-152r; 153v-162r; 164v; 166v-170v).‎
Folio 82r contains the following Old West Yiddish vocalized word translations from the main text, included in the left lateral margin, such as the words gehekhelt (‎גהכלט‎); gesponen (‎גשפונין‎); getswrint ‎ ‎(‎גצוורינט‎).
Legatura: Brand new quarter white leather binding (October 2018), with Prussian blue cardboard boards (250 x 170 mm). Three banded spine. Two thin white leather straps complete the binding. The old 19th century brown paper cardboard binding was preserved in a separate box also bearing the shelfmark Ms. Heid. 145. The pastedown at the beginning of the volume has an old paper sticker which the following written in dark brown ink: S. 170b, geschrieben 5101 A.M. = 1341 followed by the Hebrew text:‎
בחמישה בשבת לירח טבת שנת חמישת אלפים ואחד ומיאה לבריאת עולם
Translation: On the 5th of the month of Tevet year 5101 since the Creation of the world.
This composite manuscript by three different scribes is composed of two textual units which were bound together. The volume is structured by a liturgical section, according to the Ashkenazi rite and a halakhic section. The manuscript Heidenheim 145 is one of many compendia of its genre, consisting of an assortment of texts which reflect the religious and talmudo-centric orientation of the intellectual elite of medieval Franco-Germany. There are two textual units in this manuscript:
TU1: ff. 0r-171v
TU2: ff. 172r-189v
Provenienza del manoscritto:
  • ‎Several owner’s notes, ff. 45r, 71v, 74v, 75v, 171r/v, 172r, some of which have been explained or transcribed and translated below:‎
    • f. 71v: Owner’s note on the last 2 lines of the page.‎ Transcription:‎
      שנת ת'ש'פ'ח' לאלף חמשי נפטר רב גרשום מ'ה' שנת ת'ת'ס'ה לאלף
      חמשי נפטר רשי ובשנת ת'ת'א' נולד: שנת ת'ת'ק'ל'א' נפטר רבי‏
      ‏ Translation:‎ Rav Gershom Meor ha-Golah died in the year 788 of the fifth millennium, Rashi died in the year 865 of the fifth millennium and was born in the year 801. Rabbi Tam died in the year 931. Dates: ‎ Rabbeinu Gershom ben Judah Meor ha-Golah died in 4788 (1028 C.E.) ‎‎[modern accepted dates: born 960 and died 1028 or 1040 C.E.).‎
      Rashi (Solomon ben Isaac) was born in 4801 (1041 C.E.) and died in 4865 (1105 C.E.) ‎‎[modern accepted dates: born 1040 and died 1105 C.E.).‎
      Rabbeinu Tam (Jacob ben Meir, Rashi’s son-in-law) died in 4931 (1171 C.E.) ‎‎[modern accepted dates: born 1100 and died 1171 C.E.).‎
    • f. 75v: several entries on the dates of birth and death of family members in two columns (?), beginning with the date ‎רלח‎ (238) which is equivalent to 1478 C. E. and ending with the date ‎רמה‎ (245), equivalent to 1485 C.E.‎
    • f. 172r: some Hebrew words and letters (‎ממשפט[...]‏‎,‎תשרך ,פרש ‏‎)‎
Acquisizione del manoscritto: This manuscript was part of the collection of Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898), a German Jewish scholar from Worms, who converted to Anglicanism. After several years studying in London, Heidenheim came to Zurich in 1864 and became an Anglican chaplain, where stayed until his death in 1898.
In 1899, the collection of 211 Hebrew manuscripts (189 paper and 22 parchment manuscripts) and 2587 printed books entered the Zentralbibliothek in Zurich. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including biblical, exegetical, halakhic, liturgical, grammatical, lexicographical, cabbalistic, astronomical and apologetical literature, and conveys above all, Moritz Heidenheim’s scholarly and scientific interests as a 19th century bibliophile (O. Franz-Klauser, 2006, pp.116, 241, 246). ‎
Manuscript catalogues:‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebraïschen Handschriften der Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Im Auftrag der Verwaltung der Zentralbibliothek beschrieben von Joseph Prijs (7 vols.), vol. 3, Nr. 107 (MS Heid. 145 A), pp. 198-199
  • J. Prijs, Die hebraïschen Handschriften der Zentralbibliothek Zürich. Im Auftrag der Verwaltung der Zentralbibliothek beschrieben von Joseph Prijs (7 vols.), vol. 2, Nr. 72 (MS Heid. 145 B-C-D), pp. 117-122 ‎
  • A. Schechter, Die hebraïschen Manuscripte der Zentralbibliothek zu Zürich (Abt. Heidenheim) von Abraham Schechter. Abgeschlossen am 15. September 1921, (Hebrew), pp.173-180.
Printed catalogues, secondary literature and online ressources:‎
  • Z. Averni, (ed.), Germania Judaica. Von 1238 bis zur Mitte des 14. Jahrhunderts, t. 2, vol. 1: Aachen – Luzern (Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1968), p. 179-181, s.v. « Düren ».‎
  • I. ben Joseph of Corbeil, Sefer Amudei ha-Golah (Sefer ha-SeMa’’Q), (Jerusalem: Mefitzi Or, 1959).‎
  • I. Davidson, Thesaurus of Mediaeval Hebrew Poetry (New York: 1924-1933), 4 vols.‎
  • Encyclopedia Judaica (Jerusalem, Keter Publishing House, 1973), vol. 6, pp. 261-262, s.v.  « Dueren, Isaac ben Meir »; vol. 9, pp. 21-23, s.v. « Issac ben Joseph of Corbeil »; vol. 13, pp. 284-285, s.v. « Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil ».‎
  • J. D. Galinsky, “Between Ashkenaz (Germany) and Tsarfat (France): Two Approaches Toward Popularizing Jewish Law”, in Jews and Christians in Thirteenth Century France, E. Baumgarten and J. D. Galinsky (eds.) (New York: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2015), pp. 77-92.‎
  • H. Gross, Gallia Judaïca : Dictionnaire géographique de la France d’après les sources rabbiniques, (Paris-Louvain : Peeters, 2011) (18971 and 19692), p. 559.‎
  • O. Franz-Klauser, Ein Leben zwischen Judentum und Christentum. Moritz Heidenheim (1824-1898) (Zurich: Chronos Verlag, 2008).‎
  • S. Hurwitz, (ed.), Maḥzor Vitry le-Rabenu Simḥah (Hebrew) (Nuremberg: Bulka, 19232).‎
  • B. ben Isaac of Worms, Sefer ha-Terumah (Venice 1523).‎
  • J. Isserles, Mahzor Vitry : Etude d’un corpus de manuscrits hébreux ashkénazes de type liturgico-légal du XIIe au XIVe siècle (Doctoral dissertation, University of Geneva and Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 2012, publication in preparation). A summary of the PhD has been published in the Revue des Etudes Juives 173, 1-2, 2014, p. 191-194. ‎
  • J. Isserles, article on the British Library, Maḥzor Vitry manuscript (31st August 2016) https://www.bl.uk/hebrew-manuscripts/articles/the-mahzor-vitry-of-the-british-library
  • E. Kanarfogel, Peering through the Lattices, Mystical, Magical and Pietistic Dimensions in the Tosafist Period, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2000).‎
  • J. Prijs, Die hebräischen Handschriften in der Schweiz: Katalog der hebräischen Handschriften in den Schweizer öffentlichen Bibliotheken … redigiert auf Grund der Beschreibungen von Joseph Prijs (Basel, Benei Beraq: Sefer Verlag, 2018), pp. 101-103 (Nr. 126) and pp. 137-138 (Nr. 161).
  • H. Soloveitchik, “The Halakhic Isolation of the Ashkenazic Community”, in Simon Dubnow Institute Yearbook, vol.VIII, G. Freudenthal (ed.), 2009, pp. 41-47.‎
  • S. Stern and J. Isserles, “The Astrological and Calendar Section of the Earliest Mahzor Vitry Manuscript (MS ex- Sassoon 535)”, Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism, 15.2, 2015, pp. 199-318.
  • E. E. Urbach, The Tosaphists: Their History, Writings and Methods, (Hebrew), 2 vol., (Jerusalem, Bialik Institute, 1955).
  • N. Vidro, “The Origins of the 247-year calendar cycle table”, Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism 17.1 (2017) pp. 95-137.‎
  • L. Zunz, Die Synagogalen Poesie des Mittelalters (Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1967), pp. 47-48 (1st ed. Berlin, 1855).‎
Unità codicologica: TU1 ff. 0r-171v
  • 1341
  • 1348
Supporto materiale: Textual unit 1 (ff. 0r-171v): Vellum of medium quality: natural cuts in the vellum on the edges of the folios (e.g. ff. 113, 123, 125, 131, 132, 133, 140-141, 154-155); natural irregularities in the vellum (e.g. ff. 116-117, 122, 154-155); holes (e.g. ff. 25, 45, 117, 123, 131, 138, 154, 156, 161); stiches (e.g. ff. 22, 27, 62, 63, 65, 66, 100, 106, 122, 124, 131, 132, 138, 142, 155-156, 161 -162 -163, 169). Skin and flesh sides are distinguishable.
Dimensioni: 172 folios (0 counted as the 1st page)‎
Formato: 236-240 x 160-165 mm
Composizione dei fascicoli: The original quiring is only partially countable because of the damages caused to the manuscript. Therefore, the quires which are not composed of quaternions in the present manuscript (which is the standard quiring method in medieval Ashkenaz), most probably contain missing folios.
‎ ‎1 folio (0r/v); 6 folios (1r-6v); I quaternion (7r-14v); II quaternion (15r-22v); III quaternion (23r-30v); IV quaternion (31r-38v); V quaternion (39r-46v); VI bifolio (47r-48v); VII ternio (49r-54v)-1; VIII binion (55r-57v); IX bifolio (58r-59v); X quaternion (60r-67v); XI quaternion (68r-75v); XII quaternion (76r-83v); XIII quaternion (84r-91v); XIV quaternion (92r-99v) ; XV quaternion (100r-107v) ; XVI quaternion (108r-115v) ; XVII ternion (116r-121v); XVIII quaternion (122r-129v); XIX quaternion (130r-137v); XX quaternion (138r-145v); XXI quaternion (146r-153v); XXII quaternion (154r-161v); XXIII bifolio (162r-163v); XXIV quaternion (164r-171v).‎
Catchwords:‎ ‎6v; 14v; 22v; 30v; 38v; 67v; 83v; 91v; 99v; 107v; 115v; 129v; 137v; 145v; 153v; 161v.
‎ N.B. f. 83v: the catchword here does not correspond with the first word of the next page because it is in fact the last word of chapter 54 (Siman 54) of the Sefer Mitzvot Qatan. Therefore, no text is missing.‎
Disposizione della pagina: Brown pencil ruling and traces of external pricking.‎
Brown pencil ruling and brown ink ruling for a table on folio 47r.‎
variations in the ruling schemes‎ ‎ 45 traced lines for 44 written lines (e.g. ff. 114v). The end of lines is respected by elongation and compression of letters, graphic signs and first letters of the following word on the next line. Exceptionally, folio 60r has a forgotten word inserted vertically into the left lateral margin.‎ Full-page layout for most of the text, except for a 2 columned layout (ff. 1v, 9r/v; 28r/v) and a 3 columned layout (ff. 2r, 15r-17r; 18r/v).
  • Various tabular layouts for tables (e.g. ff. 44v-51v) and circular layouts for diagrams (e.g. ff. 52v-53v, 171v).
  • Inner and outer indentations around the initial letters and words.
  • Marginal glosses on many folios.‎
  • ff. 21v; 119v-121v: geometrical shaped text laid out in the center of the page
Tipo di scrittura e mani: 2 scribes (blank pages: ff. 22r/v; 47r-48v; 53r/v; 59r; 75r/v). ‎

  • Scribe 1: ff. 0r-21v and ff. 76r-170v. Identified in the colophon on folio 170v as ‎יצחק‎ (Itsḥak) who dated his copy in December 1341 C.E.). [see also on f. 61r, the name Itsḥak identified with dots attached to this name].
  • Scribe 2: ff. 23r-46v; 49r-52v; 54r-58v; 59v-74v (and also wrote the marginal glosses on folios 60r-63v) (colophon, f. 71v: 1348 C.E) [see also on f. 57r, the name Yaakov identified with dots attached to this name]‎.
    The name ‎יעקב‎ (Yaakov) has been highlighted by a series of diagonal dots coming out of his name into the margins of three folios in the manuscript: ff. 57r, 82v, 130v. Prijs (p. 103) suggests that Yaakov was Itsḥak’s (scribe 1) father, which he wished to honour, by highlighting his name.
    ‎ This hypothesis does not seem possible because one of the folios (f. 57r) highlighted by dots near the name Yaakov, was not written by Itsḥak, since it belongs to the section written by scribe 2 (see above).‎
    ‎ Therefore, author of the dotted emphasis for the name Yaakov on folio 57r can only be scribe 2, since the latter wrote this portion text as well as the text on the following folios: ff. 23r-46v; 49r-52v; 54r-58v; 59v-74v. These portions of text were written at the time of the dated colophon found on folio 71v, which would be 1348 C.E. and is 7 years after the dated colophon of 1341 by Itsḥak (scribe 1), on folio 170v. Furthermore, Yaakov (scribe 2), highlighted his name in portions of text written by Itsḥak (scribe 1) on folios 82v and 130v, which brings further proof of his later participation in the writing of the manuscript.‎
  • Consequently, although the later portion of the manuscript, dated 1348 (f. 71v) has been inserted into the binding before the earlier portion of the manuscript, dated 1341 (f. 170v), both scribes are clearly identifiable:‎ ‎
    • Scribe 1: named Itsḥak, highlighted in the text on folio 61r and named in the colophon.‎
    • Scribe 2: named Yaakov, highlighted not only on folios 82v and 130v, but particularly on folio 57r, which helps identify him as the author of the portions of text he wrote
  • ff. 119v-121v: diamond shaped text laid out in the centre of the page.‎
  • f. 76r: initial word has been surrounded with decorative scroll work in brown ink and probably in the same hand, an upside-down triangular scrolled shape and branch in the bottom margin of folio 166v.‎
  • Some decorated catchwords in brown in: ff. 30v; 67v; 107v; 129v; 137v; 145v; 153v; 161v; ‎
  • f. 106r: a later hand drew small rectangular shapes filled with lines into both lateral margins in brown ink.‎
TU1: ff. 0r-171v according to quires (text from ff. 0r-170v): (blank pages in the manuscript: ff. 22r/v; 47r-48v; 53r/v, 59r, 75r/v, 171r but filled with later hands. Only folio 171v is actually a blank page)
  • ff. 0r-21v : Lacunary liturgical section of the compendium, according to the Ashkenazi rite, with abridged prayers and liturgical poetry (piyyutim
    • (ff. 0r/v) liturgy for the sabbath
    • (f. 1r) additions for Rosh Ḥodesh
    • (ff. 1v-2r) additions for Yom Tov
    • (ff. 2v-5r) Haggadah ending with ‎כי לא נאה‎
    • (ff. 5r-8v) Pirqei Avot
    • (ff. 8v-10v) additions for the Amidah for Shaḥarit and Mussaf, including the order of the blowing of the Shofar during Rosh ha-Shanah
    • (ff. 10v-11r) additions for the Amidah during Yom Kippur, including when it falls on a sabbath
    • (ff. 11r/v) Viduy
    • (ff. 12r-13v) Hoshanot
    • (ff. 14r/v) Simḥat Torah and Ḥatan Bereshit
    • (ff. 15r-19v) Piyyutim of Leil Shimurim
    • (ff. 19v-21v) Addition for the Amidah of Tisha be-Av followed by blessings for mourners
  • ff. 22r/v Calendar section :‎ blank page with moladot for the year 5120 (1360) in a later hand (hardly legible), with indications of the qualities/ weather at each time of year (in first and second paragraphs) e.g. in Tamuz, it will be hot with rain, in Av it will be very hot.‎
  • ff. 23r-42v Qovetz ha-piyyutim for feasts, fasts and various occasions during the Jewish liturgical year, followed by their reference found in I. Davidson’s Thesaurus : (Hereafter, just the number referring to the piyyut will appear next to the incipit of it, where possible).‎
    • (f. 23r) : Yotser sequence recited around the Shema.‎
    • (f. 23v) : אלהים ביתה‎ (4686) : Maariv for the 2nd day of Shavuot
    • (f. 24r) : אשרי העם‎ (8396) : Maariv for the 1st day of Rosh ha-Shanah by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238)‎
    • (f. 24v) : ‎כסא אורי וישעי‎ (492) : Maariv for the 2nd night of Rosh ha-Shanah‎
    • (f. 25r) : אתה לבדך‎ (8818) : Maariv for the 2nd day of Sukkot by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238)‎
    • (f. 25v) : ‎ארחמך‎ (7575) :‎‏ ‏Maariv for the 7th day of Sukkot by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238)‎
    • (f. 26r) : ‎שמיני ‏‎ Maariv for the 8th day of Sukkot‎
    • (f. 26r-27r) : ‎חג אסיף Maariv for the 2nd day of Sukkot‎
    • (f. 27r/v) : ‎אל נישא‎ Yotser for Shabbat Bereshit by Solomon ben Judah ha-Bavli (10th c.)‎
    • (f. 28r) :   אהיצו‎ Yotser for Shabbat and Rosh Ḥodesh by Rabeinu Benjamin (?) followed by a partially erased Ofan
    • (f. 28v) : אמונתך‎ Zulat‏ for Rosh Ḥodesh
    • (ff. 28v-29r) : אור זרוע‎ Yotser for Pessah (the rest is undecipherable)‎
    • (ff. 29r/v) : ארוממך‎ Yotser for Shabbat Naḥamu by Meir Shaliakh Tsibbur
    • (f. 29v) : Ofan
    • (ff. 30r/v-31r) : אמת‎ Zulat followed by  ‎אייחך שם‎ (2730) : Yoster for the Ḥatan by Simeon ben Isaac ben Abun Kalonymos ha-Gadol of Mainz (c.970-1020), followed by a an Ofan and a Zulat
    • (ff. 31v-32r) : אלה תולדות‎ (4292) : Yotzer by Menahem ben Jacob of Worms (c.1120-1203) for circumcisions, beginning of Sabbaths and for bridegrooms
    • (ff. 32r/v) : יקר גדלו‎ (3630): Ofan for a circumcision by Judah ben Kalonymos ben Moses of Mainz (d. 1196/99)‎
    • (ff. 32v-33r) : תחת תפוח‎ (235) :‎‏ ‏‎Zulat followed by two Reshuyot
    • (ff. 33v-34r) : אור תורה‎ (1993) : Yoster for a circumcision followed by an Ofan
    • (ff. 34r-36r) : אני ראשון‎ (6776) : Yotser for Shabbat Shoftim
    • (ff. 36r/v) : אל-קי ישעינו‎ Yotser for Shabbat Teshuvah by Menahem ben Jacob of Worms (c.1120-1203)‎
    • (f. 36v) אור ישראל‎ (1966) :‎‏ Ofan by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238), followed by the Zulat ‎אד-ני מעון‎ (916)‎
    • (f. 37r) : Zulatot between Pessah and Shavuot
    • (ff. 37v-38r) : זולתך אדונים‎ (82): Zulat by Judah ben Kalonymos ben Moses of Mainz (d. 1196/99)‎
    • (ff. 38r/v) : Zulat by Simeon ben Isaac ben Abun Kalonymos ha-Gadol of Mainz (c.970-1020)‎
    • (ff. 38v-39r) : אריות‎ Zulat by Joseph ben Samuel Tov Elem Bonfils (c. 980-1050)
    • (f. 39r) : זולתך אין קאל‎ (83): Zulat by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238) in memory of the massacre of Erfurt which took place on the 25th Sivan 4981 (3rd June 1221 C.E.), where all the Jews of this city were killed. (‎זולת דרבינו אלעזר רוקע לגזירת ארפורט ב'ה' בסיון אף' לפרט‏‎)‎
    • (ff. 39v-40r) : אף אורה‎ (7089): Ofan by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238) for the sabbath before Tisha be-Av, followed by ‎אורה שמך‎ (1614): Zulat by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (1176-1238) before Shabbat Naḥamu
    • (ff. 40r/v) : אור ויושע‎ Yotser the last day of Pessah by Meir Shaliakh Tsibbur
    • (ff. 40v-41r/v) : אדיר ונאה‎ Yotser for the 2nd day of Shavuot by Meir Shaliakh Tsibbur, followed by an Ofan
    • (ff. 41v-42r) : אשישת‎ piyyut by Solomon ben Judah ha-Bavli (10th c.), followed by a Yotser
    • (f. 42r) : Piyyut recited before Qaddish followed by the piyyut ‎ממלכות הכהנים‎ (1795)
    • (f. 42v) : Four piyyutim beginning with ‎‏ אלקיכם‏‎(4595, 4583, 4569, 4580)
  • ff. 43r-53v Torah readings , followed by calendrical, astrological and liturgical material: ‎
    • (ff. 43r-45v) : Begins with rules for Torah reading‏ ‏for Pessah (‎אילו סימני פרשיות של פסח‎) and follows with those for Torah readings for all the other festivals and fasts of the Jewish liturgical year.‎
    • (ff. 45v-52r) : Calendrical material, including:
      • (f. 45v) : cycles ‎רסט‎ to ‎רעה‎: 269-275 (5093-5207) = 1333-1447 (the transcribing of the dates of this calendar in Prjis’ catalogue on p. 138 only includes cycles 269 to 274).
      • (f. 46r) : Calendar tables entitled Seder Itsḥaq ha-Rofe ‘assah for the festivals and fasts of the Jewish liturgical year, as well as the dates for reading the biblical pericopes (Parshyiot) during the year.‎
      • (f. 46v) : Table with the times of the tequfot (solstices and equinoxes) for 28 years, spanning from the year (5)179 (‎קעט‎) (1419 C.E.) to (5)196 (‎קצו‎) (1436 C.E.) – but only legible until the year (5)186 (‎קפו‎) (1426 C.E.). The years in the column far right have been added in a later hand. The original list of years, in the column next to the dates of the tequfot have been almost all scratched out. The first and last years, (among some others) are legible and extend from (5)123 (‎קכג‎) (1363 C.E.) to (5)152 (‎קנב‎) (1392 C.E.), which equals 29 years, instead of 28 years. Therefore, the original scribe of this list skipped a year in his count. The overall interest in this tequfot list is the fact that it was reused for another span of 28 years later in time.‎
      • (ff. 47r-48v) (blank page filled in by later hand):
        • (f. 47r) : Iggul de-Rav Naḥshon, a 247-year calendar cycle table, attributed to Naḥshon, Gaon of Sura (871-879 C.E.) for calculating the Qeviyyot (types of years which determine the day of the week Rosh ha-Shanah is going to fall) in 13 cycles of 19 years. The table in this manuscript has been extensively damaged and only 4 cycles of 19 years are legible, covering the 270th cycle (‎רע‎) (5112-5131= 1352-1371 C.E.) to the 27‎‏4‏th cycle (‎רעד‎) 5188-5207= 1428-1447 C.E.), followed by a non-legible text and list below. (On the Iggul de-Rav Naḥshon, see Vidro, esp. pp. 95-96, and note 1).
        • (f. 47v) : another table with the times of the tequfot, but for 19 years. Here again, the years have been scratched out and the same hand as on f. 46v has replaced them with later years, but hardly legible (again, the overall interest in this tequfot list is the fact that it was reused for another span of 19 years later in time).
        • (f. 48r) : two columned table with the times of the Moladot (new moons) in September and March (Tishri and Nissan according to the Jewish calendar, determining the feasts of Rosh ha-Shanah and Pessah), for the 271st cycle of 19 years (5131-5150 =1371-1390).
        • (f. 48v) : calendrical text on the moladot, followed by a mnemotechnical device drawn on the phalanxes of the hands to remember calendrical material (the script on this page is hardly legible).‎
      • (f. 49r) : 28-year cycle table of the tequfot according to Joseph ben Isaac Bekhor Shor of Orleans (12th c. tosafist) (‎אלו הכ'ח' שורות שיסד רבי יוסף בכור שור‎). The table indicates the day and hour of e ach solstice and equinox.
      • (ff. 49v-50v) : Calendrical treatise referring to Abraham ben Meir ibn Ezra (1089/92-1164/67) on the tequfot, including a poem by the latter on f. 50r (Davidson 4953).‎
      • (f. 51r) : Moladot for March and September (Tishri and Nissan) for the last 4 years of the 269th cycle (‎רסט‎) (5‎‏093‏‎-51‎‏12‏‎= 13‎‏33‏‎-13‎‏52‏‎ C.E.), beginning in the year (5)108 (‎קח‎) (1348 C.E) and ending with (5)111 (‎קאי‎) (1351 C.E.), followed by the 270th cycle (‎רע‎) (5112-5131= 1352-1371 C.E.) of 19 years, going from (5)112) (‎קיב‎) (1352 C.E.) to (5)130 (‎קל‎) (1370 C.E.).
      • (f. 51v) : text on the moladot followed by another table on the intercalated years (5)109 (1349 C.E.) to (5)144 (1384 C.E.)‎
      • (ff. 52r/v) : Extract on the tequfot and moladot, taken from the Hilkhot ha-Mazalot (‎הלכות המזלות‎) in the ethical and biblical work entitled Sefer ha-Ḥegyion (spelled as Ḥezyion here, ‎ספר החזיון‎), and also known as Hegyon ha-nefesh (Contemplation of the soul, ‎הגיון הנפש‎) by Abraham bar Hiyya (1070-1136/1145). This work also includes subject matter on astrology, displayed in a concentric circular diagram on f. 52v, containing the following from the exterior to the interior: the 4 cardinal points, the 12 months of the Jewish year, the 12 zodiac signs, the 4 elements, the 7 planets and the 4 qualities. The diagram is accompanied by a small commentary below.‎
      • (f. 53r) : blank page filled by a later hand, with a partially vocalized (first 5 lines) Piyyut by Rabeinu Meir, entitled Yotser for Shabbat between Yom Kippur and Sukkot by our teacher our Rabbi Meir may his memory be blessed (‎יוצר לשבת שבין יום כיפור לסוכות ממורינו רבינו מאיר זכ' צד' לברכה‎)‎‏ ‏‎ (‎אליך תשוקתי‎, Davidson 5098)‎
      • (f. 53v) : blank page filled by a later hand with a very faint astrological circular diagram and surrounding commentary.‎
  • ff. 54r-58v Liturgical section and decree by Jacob ben Moses Levi Mölin (Maharil, 1365-1427):‎
    • (ff. 54r-58v) several piyyutim, including on f. 57r, two piyyutim starting with ‎אין לנו‎ (Davidson 3045) and ‎אזכרה‎ (Davidson 2278)
    • (f. 58v) : Yotser le-Simhat Torah.‎
  • f. 59r : blank page filled by a later hand with a copy of a letter (lacunary beginning) from the Ashkenazi rabbinical authority, Jacob Moses Levi Mölin (Maharil, 1365-1427), sent to the Jewish community of Frankfurt (this letter was sent to other German Jewish communities as well), ordering them to institute a general three day fast from the 6th to 8th October 1421, after the persecution and massacre of Jews during the Hussite wars (1419-1434) in various regions of Bohemia, Rhineland, Franconia and Saxony.‎ (Zunz, pp. 47-48). Explicit of the letter: ‎סליק כתב של מ'ה'ר' יעקב סל' שי' אשר שלח ליישובי ורנקבורט
  • ff. 59v-71v Halakhic work Issur ve-heiter by Isaac ben Meir Düren (late 13th c.), preceded by an index to the work:‎
    Title: ‎אתחיל איסור והיתר שחיבור הרב ר' יצחק בן מאיר מדורא‎. (I will begin the Issur ve-Heiter by the author the Rabbi R. Isaac ben Meir from Dura).‎ Isaac ben Meir Düren (late 13th c.) was an important rabbinical halakhic authority on the laws of Issur ve-Heiter from the city of Düren near Cologne in the Northern Rhine-Westphalia region. According to the Germania Judaica, there was a Jewish community in Düren during the 13th century. The Issur ve-Heiter is also known as the Sha‘arei Dura (Gates of Dura), addressing the laws of Issur ve-heiter, which deal with forbidden foods (Tereifot) and family purity (Niddah) (Galinsky, p. 83). The work is principally based on earlier rabbinical decisions from Franco-Germany and exercised a great influence on later halakhic decisions, becoming the main reference for these two sections of Jewish law. Isaac ben Meir’s great notoriety earned his work to receive glosses of great Talmudists of the following generations, such as Israel Isserlein (c. 1390-1460), Nathan Nata ben Samson Shapira (c. 1490-1577) and Solomon Luria (1510-1573), integrated in the ten printed editions of this work after its first printing in Cracow in 1537. ‎
    • (f. 59v) : Numbered index from ‎א‎ (1) to ‎מ‎ (‎‏40‏‎) for the chapters of the Issur ve-Heiter which follows.‎
    • (ff. 60r-71v) : Issur ve-heiter by Isaac ben Meir Düren.‎‏ ‏Glosses in three different scripts (of which 2 later hands, e.g. 60r/v, 62v, 64v, 66r). The gloss which begins with the following title: ‎זה הפסקי מן קארבול אשר חיבור כל הפסקים על השחיטה ובדיקה‎ (These are the decisions from Corbeil who is the author of all decisions on Sheḥitah and Bediqah), only extends from ff. 60r to 63v. The word‎קארבול ‏‎ is possibly a misspelling of Corbeil which is spelled in Hebrew in the manuscript on folio 113r, last line of the manuscript as ‎קורבוייל‎. However, in the Gallia Judaica dictionary by Henri Gross (p. 559), there are various spellings of Corbeil in Hebrew characters; two of them are: ‎קורבל‎ and רבאל‎ and resemble the spelling of ‎קארבול‎ found in Ms Heidenheim 145. Therefore, if it is indeed the decisions of Corbeil found in the gloss, they would refer to the decisions relative to the laws relative to Issur ve-Heiter, which include Sheḥitah and Bediqah, by Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (died 1280).
      Colophon at the end of this work on f. 71v:‎ Transcription:‎
      בעזרת שוכן שחק נשלם איסור והיתר מרבינו יצחק ו'ה'ו'א'‏
      ישמרי מכל דוחק ושמי לחיים טובים יוחק ומספר הרחמים לי-י
      לא יהיה נמחק
      ותשלם המלאכה לפרט ח'ק' לאלף הששי
      בריח החמישי
      With the help of He who resides in the firmament Issur ve-Heiter by Rabeinu Isaac has been completed‏ ‏and the truth and peace in His love.‎
      He will keep me from all oppression and in my name for good life will be played and from the book of the Compassionate Almighty
      Will not be erased
      You will pay for the work according to the small count 108 of the sixth millennium
      In the fifth month.‎ ‎
      (date: The fifth month is either Av or Shevat, depending on if the year begins with Tishri or Nissan. The year is (5)108 = 1348 C.E.)‎
  • ff. 72r-74v and 75r/v: Index to the work Sefer ha-Tashbetz by Samson ben Tzadok (2nd half 13th c.) and a section of text on Hilkhot Sheḥitah:‎
    • (ff. 72r-74v) : Index to the Sefer ha-Tashbetz on the following laws, relative to the festivals and fasts of the Jewish liturgical year: Pessah, Yom tov and Ḥol ha-Moed, Rosh ha-Shanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkah, Arba’a minim, ner Ḥanukkah, Megillah and Purim, Birkat ha-mazon, Tikkun Tefillah and its order, Tikkun Megillah, Sefer Torah and Tefilin, Nedarim, Shevuot, Tsedakah, Seder Nashim ve-tevelato, Issur ve-Heiter and various Dinim and Pesaqim. The index ends on f. 74v with the words ‎סליקו סמני תשבץ‎ (The numbers to the Tashbetz are finished).‎
      The Sefer ha-Tashbetz is a work by Samson ben Tzadok (2nd half 13th c.), one of the most fervent disciples of Meir ben Barukh of Rothenburg (Maharam, c. 1215-1293), who compiled all his master’s customs regarding to the festivals, prayer and various laws relative to Jewish daily life (see the subjects in the index above). Moreover, the title of the work Tashbetz is composed of the acronym of its author Talmid Shimshon ben Tzadok. Most manuscript copies of this work, over 40 in number, differ greatly from the editions and other manuscripts, both in the text and in the order of the paragraphs; this manuscript is no exception. A modern edition of this work was published in 2005 (Tashbetz ha-Qoton, Israel, Makhon Torah she-bi-ketav).‎
    • (ff. 75r/v) : blank pages filled with a text by a later hand on the Hilkhot Sheḥitah, starting with the words ‎יהודה אמר שמואל כל טבח שאינו יודע הילכות שחיטה ...‏‎. In a gloss near the bottom of the page, there is a mention of ‎רבי ברוך ממענצא‎ on the first line. This name refers to the Talmudist, Barukh ben Samuel of Mainz (died 1221).
  • ff. 76r-170v : Halakhic work Sefer Mitsvot Qatan by Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (died c. 1280), followed by an index to the work (and a calendar inserted on f. 167r)
    • (ff. 76r-166v) : Sefer Mitsvot Qatan (Semaq) by Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (died c. 1280).‎
      The Sefer Mitsvot Qatan or « Small Book of Precepts » is a halakhic compendium, which also includes ethical aggadic and homiletical material, written ca. 1276-1277 by Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, one of the great codifiers and French tosafists of the 13th century. The work is also called « Sheva Ammudei ha-Golah » or the « Seven Pillars of the Exile », due to its division into seven sections, corresponding to the seven days a week, encouraging its daily study. This work is an abridged version of the Sefer Mitsvot Gadol (Semag), another halakhic compendium completed in 1247 by Moses ben Jacob of Coucy (1st half 13th c.), which itself is a simplified and comprehensive code, widely influenced by MaimonidesMishneh Torah. The Sefer Mitsvot Qatan went one step further than the Sefer Mitsvot Gadol, in omitting the lengthy Talmudic discussions, conflicting opinions, references to the Mishneh Torah and the commandments which were no longer applicable in the post-Temple era; providing instead a synopsis of each of the 248 positive and 365 negative commandments (Galinsky, pp. 80-81). Consequently, with a much more accessible halakhic code, the Sefet Mitsvot Qatan achieved widespread popularity, receiving recognition from rabbinical authorities from Franco-Germany to the extent of being included by some in siddurim and maḥzorim, so that the precepts could be recited daily. In a particularly rare case, the scribe of a late 13th century north French liturgical-halakhic compendium, containing laws on liturgy from the Mahzor Vitry (Paris, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Ms 133H, ff. 2r-27v) begins the manuscript with portions of the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan for the first five days of the week inserted at the end of a compilation of various readings from the Bible, Prophets and Psalms; a selection of readings called the Seder ha-Ma’arakhah by the 11th century liturgical poet Eliahu ben Menahem ha-Zaqen of Le Mans (describes the incense service in the Temple in Jerusalem), followed by the theological anonymous hymn of the Shir ha-Yiḥud for the first four days of the week, as well as the Decalogue for the second and fifth day of the week (Isserles, 2012).
      Lastly, the Sefer Miṣvot Qatan was one of the most copied works in medieval Franco-Germany and due to its notoriety, numerous glosses were added to the work, the most popular being those of the main disciple of Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil (died c. 1295-98), one of the most important tosafists of his time. His glosses were first published along with the Sefer Miṣvot Qatan in Cremona in 1559 (Encyclopedia Judaica, pp. 284-285; Kanarfogel, pp. 89 (note 169), 124 and 241; Urbach, p. 585).‎ [e.g. the Bodleian Library in Oxford possesses several 13th and 14th century Ashkenazi manuscripts including the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan with Perez ben Elijah’s glosses (Ms Shelfmark with Neubauer’s cat. Number): Ms Opp. 339 (n°883), Ms Opp. 337 (n°884), Ms Opp. 338 (n°874), Ms Opp. 340 (n°875), Ms Hunt. 499 (n°885), Ms CAN. Or. 30 (n°886) et Ms Opp. 335 (n°1130).]‎
      The text of the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan in Ms Heidenheim 145 is divided into Simanim (numbered sections), numbered from 1 (‎א‎) to 289 (‎רפט‎) (the text and the index have the same number of chapters). The index is divided into portions to be studied during the seven days of the week. The printed edition (Ed. Prin., Constantinople, 1510) has five more chapters than in this manuscript and ends with n°294 (‎רצד‎).‎‏ ‏As mentioned under the catchwords, the catchword on folio 83v does not correspond with the first word of the next page because it is in fact the last word of chapter 54 (Siman 54) of the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan. Therefore, no text is missing in this copy of the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan.‎
      • (f. 113r/v) : Insertion found within the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan of a Tofes ha-get (‎טופס הגט‎), which is an imitation copy of a divorce contract (f. 133r: ‎טופס הגט כאשר דקדק‎), usually dated and located, using the time and place in which the original scribe of the imitation copy contract wrote it. In this case, it was in Paris in the year 1282, two years after the death of Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (d. 1280):‎
        • (f. 113v) , lines 1-2 beginning of the contract: בששי בשבת בשמנה ימים לירח אלול שנת חמשת אלפים וארבעים ושתים לבריאת עולם למנין שאנו מנין כאן בפריש ‏ On Thursday on the 8th day of the month of Elul in the year 5042 since the Creation of the world according to the count we counted here in Paris. ‎ ‎ However, here, scribe 1 (Itshaq) simply copied the contract without changing the date and place.‎
    • (f. 167r) : Calendar for the festival of the Jewish liturgical year including the simple and intercalated years for the 270th cycle (‎רע‎) (5112-5131= 1352-1371 C.E.) and spanning from the year (5)104 (‎קד‎) (1344 C.E.) to (5)130 (‎קל‎) (1370 C.E.). Two different later hands in the bottom margin and in a horizontal direction added information on the occurrence of when some biblical pericopes (parashyiot) are read together or read separately, depending if the year in question is simple or intercalated.‎
    • (ff. 167v-170v) Index to the Sefer Mitsvot Qatan.‎ Colophon at the end of the index on f. 170v: ‎ Transcription:
      הנני הצעיר יצחק שבח לשוכן שחק כתבתי זה הספר בלי דופי וחפר
      ודיניהם באמרי שפר ברוך הי המספר [.....] המק'‏
      יתן לו בר ולחם [...] ‏
      ברוך הי אשר החייני לסיימו ולשלומו עזרני בחמישי ‏
      בשבת לירח טבת שנת חמשת אלפים ואחד ומאה לבריאת ‏
      עולם המקום יזכהו להגות בו הוא וזרעו וזרע זרעו עד‏
      סוף כל הדורות אמן אמן סלה חזק ונתחזק‎.‎
      Here I am the young Isaac may there be praise for He who resides in the firmament I wrote this book without reproach or shame
      And their laws in beautiful words blessed be the Almighty the patron [erased name of previous owner] G. gives him provisions and bread […]‎
      Blessed be the Almighty who helped me live to finish and complete it (the book) on Thursday
      Of the month of Tevet in the year 5101 of the Creation of the‎
      World. G. will give him the privilege to meditate upon it (the book) and his descendant and the descendants of his descendant until
      The end of all the generations. Amen amen selah strength and be strengthened.‎
      ‎(date: Tevet 5101 = December 1341 C.E.) ‎ ‎
  • ff. 171r/v : Blank pages with owner’s notes:‎
    • (f. 171r) : Sentence relative to the calendar and a hardly legible and unfinished circular diagram followed by a paragraph on astrology, beginning with the words ‎זוהי תכונת השמים כאשר קבלתיה מרבותי גלגל... ‏
    • (f. 171v) : blank page with small illegible owner’s notes.‎
Unità codicologica: TU2 ff. 172r-189v
Datazione: 2nd half 14th century‎
Supporto materiale: Textual unit 2 (ff. 172r-189v): parchment of medium quality: stiches (f. 183); holes (f. 181).
Dimensioni: 18 folios‎
Formato: 213-214 x 140-144 mm‎
Composizione dei fascicoli: Quires:‎ I ternion (172r-176v)*1; II quinion (177r-185v)*2 ; III bifolio (186r-189v)‎
*‎1: Stub between ff. 172v-173r.‎
*‎2: Stub between ff. 176v-177r
Disposizione della pagina: Grey pencil ruling, no traces of pricking, since the outer lateral margins have been cropped.‎
‎1 + 1 columns of text. ‎‎34-38 traced lines for 33-37 written lines. The end of lines is respected by elongation and compression of letters as well as graphic signs.‎
Full-page layout. Inner and outer indentations around the initial letters and words.‎
Tipo di scrittura e mani: 1 scribe, unknown date.‎ Scribe 3: ff. 172v-189v
  • ff. 172r-189v according to quires (text from ff. 172v-189v):‎
    • (f. 172r) : blank page with small illegible owner’s notes.‎
    • (ff. 172v-189v) Selection of Laws from two early 13th c. Franco-German halakhic codes : the Sefer ha-Terumah and the Sefer ha-Roqeaḥ
      • (ff. 172v-186v) Laws from the Sefer ha-Terumah‎ by Barukh ben Isaac of Worms (active c. 1200). By virtue of the wealth of its sources and its clear structure, this treatise has not only been cited by many rabbinical authorities from medieval Ashkenaz, Italy and Spain, but has been preserved in many manuscripts, in complete and partial form. The work was first printed in Venice in 1523, then in Zolkiev in 1811.
        The following laws follow the order of the printed edition (Venice, 1523) of the Sefer ha-Terumah, even though not all laws for the work are copied out below. Most of the laws which are copied below belong to the abridged version at the beginning of the work. Only the laws on Sheḥitah and Shabbat include longer portions of text (from the main part of the work), employed as introductions to the abridged laws listed here.‎
        • (ff. 172v-173r) : Hilkhot Sheḥitah (beginning identical to Hilkhot Sheḥitah in the edition of the London Maḥzor Vitry; see Hurwitz, vol. 2, p. 740).
        • (ff. 173r/v) : Hilkhot Terefot
        • (ff. 173v-177r) : Hilkhot Issur ve-Heiter (ff. 175v-176r illegible) ‎
        • (ff. 177r/v) : Hilkhot Ḥallah ‎
        • (ff. 177v-178v) : Hilkhot Niddah
        • (ff. 178v-179v) : Hilkhot Gittin (beginning identical to Hilkhot Gittin in the edition of the London Maḥzor Vitry; see Hurwitz, vol. 2, pp. 778-779).‎
        • (ff. 179v-180v) : Hilkhot Yayin Nessekh
        • (ff. 180v-186v) : Hilkhot Shabbat , taken from the Sefer ha-Terumah.‎
          Some of the laws from the Sefer ha-Terumah are also preserved in three Maḥzor Vitry manuscripts. The Maḥzor Vitry is a liturgical-halakhic compendium and one of the most imported sources for medieval Franco-German Jewry, compiled in the 11th century by a disciple of Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi, 1040-1105), named Simhah ben Samuel of Vitry (died c. 1105). Although the original work is lost, there are several extant manuscripts from Northern France and Ashkenaz, dated between the mid-12th c. and the late 14th century (see Stern and Isserles, 2015, p. 201, n. 2). Here below are the three Maḥzor Vitry enclosing laws from the Sefer ha-Terumah:‎ ‎
          • Moscow, Russian State Library, Ms Guenzburg, 481, N. France, late 12th to early-13th century, ff. 229v-248v, which encloses the same selection of laws: Sheḥitah, Terefot, Gittin and Yayin Nessekh.
          • ‎Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, MS Add. 667.1, N. France, c. 1218-1237, ff. 86v-94r: Laws on Shabbat.‎
          • ‎London, British Library, Add. MS 27200-27201, N. France, c. 1242 (see printed edition of this manuscript, in S. Hurwitz: Hilkhot Shabbat, vol. 1, pp. 121-131; Hilkhot Sheḥitah and Hilkhot Terefot, vol. 2, pp. 755-758; Hilkhot Issur ve-Heiter, vol. 2, pp. 758-767; Hilkhot Yayin Nessekh, vol. 2, pp. 771-777.
          ‎ [See also the article mentioning he presence of some laws of the Sefer ha-Terumah in this manuscript at https://www.bl.uk/hebrew-manuscripts/articles/the-mahzor-vitry-of-the-british-library (accessed 05.06.2019). See also Isserles, 2012).]‎
      • (ff. 187r-189v) : Extracts of laws from the Sefer ha-Roqeaḥ by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (c. 1176-1238)
        • (f. 187r) : Hilkhot Omer
        • (f. 187r) : Hilkhot Yom Tov
        • (ff. 187v-188r) : Hilkhot Ḥol ha-Mo’ed
        • (f. 188r) : Hilkhot 17 Tamuz ‎
        • (ff. 188r/v) : Hilkhot Ta’anit
        • (ff. 188v-189r) : Hilkhot 9 Av
        • (ff. 189r/v) : Hilkhot Rosh ha-Shanah and Hilkhot Shofar (lacunary)
        The Sefer ha-Roqeaḥ was written by Eleazar ben Judah ben Qalonymos of Worms (c. 1176-1238), disciple and family relation to Judah ben Samuel ben Qalonymos he-Ḥasid (c. 1150-1217), founder of the pietistic movement of the Ḥasidei Ashkenaz. Eleazar of Worms was an important rabbinical authority having greatly suffered during Rhineland massacres of the 1197 Crusade, where he lost all his family. His vast erudition led him to write ethical, exegetical, liturgical, esoteric, pietisitc and Talmudic works. Particularly noteworthy here, is his Sefer ha-Roqeaḥ, or ‘Book of the Perfumer’, a halakhic guide on talmudic discourses and Franco-German customs, divided into 497 paragraphs and destined to the common reader. The first two chapters of the work are of ethical nature, dealing with fear of G. and repentance (Ed. Prin., Fano, 1505).